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FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN 400W PSU

November 7, 2005 by Devon
Cooke

Product
FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN

400W ATX12V 2.0 Power Supply
Manufacturer
FSP
Group
Market Price
~US$70 (on line, EU)

The FSP Green PS is an environmentally friendly power supply
manufactured from recyclable and nontoxic materials, and it's supposed
to be highly efficient. It's utilitarian in appearance, and there is little
to distinguish it visually from the dozens of OEM power supplies. It's about as free of bling as any PSU we've reviewed.

Examining the FSP Green PS is a little like chatting
with the class nerd: The other power supplies are bigger and prettier, but
you can't deny that there's intelligence beneath the skin. Like most nerds, the FSP
is well known but mostly ignored: It has no shortage of press coverage, but
very hard to find it for sale anywhere. (At least in North America.)

What we really want to know is whether the Green PS has some other nerdy attributes:
Will it be well behaved and sit quietly in the corner of the computer case,
or does it act up and draw attention to itself? Sure, the attention seeking
power supplies may be more fun, but do you really want to put that kind of power
supply in charge of your computer? Not if you want a quiet computer.

For the record, FSP stands for Fortron-Source Power, and they're a pretty big PSU manufacturer, not just a brand that slaps its badge and marketing spin on PSUs made for them. FSP Group is a major OEM/ODM supplier, in fact. Many well known brands — even in the quiet PC sector — actually have their PSUs made by FSP. The list includes AOpen, Zalman, Nexus and SilenX, to name just a few. FSP has an extensive line of power supplies under the Fortron-Source brand, and their products are also sold under the name of Sparkle.

FEATURE HIGHLIGHTS

The retail package for the Green PS is made from unbleached, recycled cardboard
— fitting for an environmentally friendly power supply. Our test sample
was even more environmentally friendly: It arrived unpackaged except for the
shipping box and a small amount of bubble wrap to protect it.



Standard publicity photo from FSP; retail package emphasizes its "greenness".

The development of an environmentally friendly power supply is more than just
goodwill on the part of the FSP-Group. Sooner or later, all power supplies (in
the EU at least) need to meet standards that dictate the amount of toxic
and unrecyclable materials that can be used in manufacturing electronics. According
to this
press release from FSP
, "In order to reduce the effects of both
heavy metals and chemical pollution on the environment, the EC (European Commission)
has stipulated explicitly that no electrical and electronic equipment put on
the market throughout the EU may contain lead after 2006".

There are two major parts of the legislation, which appears to come into force on 1 July 2006:

  1. There will be maximum allowable limits for the following substances:
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Cadmium
  • Hexavalent chromium
  • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
  • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE)
  • Electronic equipment will be subject to a "recycling tax", much
    like the bottle deposit found on recyclable drink containers. These taxes
    will go to the manufacturers, who will be required to facilitate the recycling
    of old electronics.
  • Specific details about the legislation can
    be found buried on the EU web site
    , and much more information can be
    found by looking up WEEE,
    the industry group behind the legislation, and RoHS,
    the part of the legislation that applies particularly to restrictions on hazardous
    substances. The precise nature of the regulations and who is going to enforce
    them varies from country to country within the EU, and there does not seem to
    be a centralized source of information about them. Our contact at FSP in the US said that their entire production is scheduled soon to adopt the environmental guidelines and practices outlined above.

    Other environmentally friendly aspects of the Green PS include active power
    factor correction and, of course, high efficiency. These features are becoming
    more common, but they are veritable requirements of any
    power supply that claims to be environmentally friendly.

    Feature Highlights of the FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN
    (from
    FSP's
    web site
    )
    FEATURE & BRIEF COMMENT
    High Efficiency exceeding 85% (at full load)
    An impressive, but increasingly
    common claim.
    Low power consumption
    on standby
    (<1W)
    Standby power consumption
    depends on the motherboard and peripherals as well...
    Under 30dBA low noise design
    Unlikely at full load,
    but certainly possible at lower loads.
    Low on heavy metal compounds
    The Green PS raison
    d'être: Environmentally friendly.
    Reduced weight (from 2.5kg reduced to 1.9kg) for less recycling
    tax (EU)
    Good for portability.
    PCI Express Connector
    for graphic cards
    Standard issue.
    Environmentally friendly PSU
    No details here...

    OUTPUT SPECIFICATIONS

    SPECIFICATIONS: FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN
    AC Input
    VAC ~ 265 VAC / 47 Hz ~63 Hz
    DC Output
    +3.3V
    +5V
    +12V1
    +12V2
    -12V
    +5VSB
    Minimum Output Current
    0.5A
    0.3A
    1.0A
    1.0A
    0.0A
    0.0A
    Maximum Output Current
    30A
    30A
    14A
    15A
    0.8A
    2.0A
    Maximum Combined
    152W
    168W
    180W
    9.6W
    10W
    400W

    The electrical specifications for the Green PS are quite run-of-the-mill. As
    with any ATX12V 2.0 power supply, most of the available power is on the +12V
    rails. There is enough output capacity to handle the vast majority of systems.

    The most interesting specifications are not electrical:

    1. Operating temperature is rated from 0°C to 50°C.
    2. No less than eleven safety certifications are listed, along with compliance
      with five EMC standards and two EMI standards.

    The specified operating temperature is a relevant piece of information
    that many companies forget to mention. It is important because temperature
    affects the output capacity of the power supply. The maximum operating
    temperature of 50°C shows that FSP has confidence in the reliability of
    the Green PS and its ability to output its rated power in realistic conditions.
    40°C or more is a realistic ambient temperature for a high powered
    system.

    CERTIFICATIONS: FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN
    Safety
    UL, CB, CE, CSA, TUV, Nemko,

    FCC, BSMI, CCC, C-TICK, GOST-R
    EMC
    EN61000-4-2, -3, -4, -5, CE approval
    EMI
    FCC Class B, CISPR 22 Class B

    PHYSICAL BASICS

    The casing of the Green PS is bare steel — most paints are quite toxic,
    which wouldn't be environmentally friendly. To the untrained eye, the Green
    PS is almost indistinguishable from the cheap generic power supplies that show
    up in prebuilt boxes.



    A small vent at the front of the power supply is the only distinguishing
    mark.

    On closer inspection, there are a few minor points that set it apart:

    • The fan is off-center, aligned along the left edge
    • There are three tiny exhaust vents along the top right edge
    • The cable insulation seems to be made from an unusual material.



    The fan is off-center, closer to the left side than the right.

    The off-center location of the fan seems to be designed to minimize the impedance
    caused by the switch and power socket on the back of the power supply. It's
    as though FSP simply gave up trying to force air through the right half of the
    power supply (fan up, facing the rear grill) and focussed their efforts on maximizing
    airflow through the left side. The fan is on the left, the rear exhaust grill
    is most open on the left, and there are two auxiliary exhaust vents, both on
    the left half of the casing. Hopefully, FSP has taken advantage of this by locating
    the warmest components on the left.



    Three tiny holes relieve back pressure along the left edge.



    The grill is very open, but not as wide as some.

    A lot of the right half is impeded by the switch and power socket.

    INSIDE THE GREEN PS

    The Green PSU is downright scrawny with its top off. No wonder FSP can claim
    a 25% reduction in weight — there's not much here! The internal components are both fewer and smaller
    than in most other power supplies. The heatsinks are aluminum
    plates wedged between the components, and the PCB doesn't occupy the whole space
    inside the casing. There are fewer coils than usual, a single main capacitor,
    and even the main transformer is about two thirds the "normal" size.

    All in all, the Green PS is a little mysterious. How can a power supply this
    "small" deliver 400W? How can it be cooled properly by the minuscule
    (and extremely simple) heatsinks? Is smaller better?

    Whatever the answer to these questions, FSP's engineers seem to have taken
    an unusual approach to the Green PS. Intuitively, it is difficult
    to believe that the unit can be cooled adequately, but if
    it had a thermal problem, it would not have passed all of those safety certifications. Whatever the intentions behind the design, I
    can't help rooting for the little guy.



    It's pretty empty inside: Components are few and widely spaced.

    What follows is an educated guess about how the internal cooling might work.

    In comparison to most power supplies we've seen in the lab recently, component and heatsinks have been minimized, and there is a lot of
    empty space. The lack of impedance should allow greater airflow through the PSU and perhaps cut down on "hot spots" where
    there is little or no air movement to evacuate the heat. The shape and careful
    positioning of the auxiliary exhaust vents seem to be designed to relieve back
    pressure, and to ensure that there are no dead ends where the air has nowhere to
    go.

    The empty space behind the rear grill means that some of
    the air from the fan will exit without ever passing over the
    heat-producing components. This is a short-circuit in the airflow,
    but it may increase airspeed and minimize back pressure
    in the rear half. The airflow in the front half will be
    slower, since there is more impedance, but also higher pressure. It seems plausible
    that the difference in pressure might be enough to cause a current from the
    front to the back, thus drawing heat away from the components on the PCB.



    This angle shows just how empty it is, about a quarter of the space is unused.

    Only the engineers at FSP can confirm my guess about airflow design, but our
    testing showed that the internal cooling is no worse (but no better) than most of the other power supplies
    we've tested. Details of the thermal performance can be found on the next page, in
    the test results.



    Skinny, vertically aligned heatsinks offer minimal airflow impedance.



    A medium speed, ball bearing fan from a manufacturer known for quiet fans.

    The fan is from a manufacturer well known to SPCR: Yate
    Loon Electronics
    . It's a medium speed ball bearing model with a rated
    noise level of 34 dB (no A weighting or measurement distance listed). Yate Loon
    has an excellent reputation for the low noise of their sleeve bearing fans, but their
    ball bearing fans are less well known. Hopefully their ball bearing models are
    as quiet and pleasant sounding.

    CABLES AND CONNECTORS

    There are a total of seven cable sets.

    • 19" cable for main 20+4-pin ATX connector
    • 20" auxiliary 4-pin 12V AUX connector
    • 26" cable with two SATA drive connectors
    • 2 x 26" cable with two 4-pin IDE drive connectors
    • 32" cable with two 4-pin IDE drive connectors and one floppy connector
    • 20" 6-pin auxiliary power connector for PCI Express



    Plain vanilla cables: Not twisted or sleeved.

    The Green PS has relatively few output cables, although there are easily enough
    for most systems. The limiting factor is likely to be SATA connectors,
    of which there are only two. There is a PCIe connector for a high power video card.

    The wires themselves are insulated with an unfamiliar kind of plastic. This
    is unusual, but not really surprising, since most wire insulation is manufactured
    with lead. Naturally, the Green PS could not be environmentally friendly if
    it used lead-based insulation... and it could not meet RoHS requirements either.

    The wires are also of several different gauges. 18 gauge wire is almost standard,
    but the Green PS used no less than three different gauges: Heavy 16 gauge for
    the PCIe connector, 18 gauge for the +12V AUX connector and most of the wires
    on the ATX header, and thinner 20 gauge for the IDE and SATA cables.

    The rationale behind using different gauges of wire is to minimize voltage
    drops for the longer cables that carry less current, while ensuring that the
    highest powered cables don't melt under heavy load. It may also be used as a
    cost saving measure, since thinner wires are generally a little cheaper.

    TEST RESULTS

    For a fuller understanding of ATX power supplies, please read the reference
    article Power Supply Fundamentals & Recommended
    Units
    . Those who seek source materials can find Intel's various PSU
    design guides at Form
    Factors
    .

    For a complete rundown of testing equipment and procedures, please refer to
    SPCR's
    PSU Test Platform V.3
    . The
    testing system is a close simulation of a moderate airflow mid-tower PC optimized
    for low noise.

    In the test rig, the ambient temperature of the PSU varies proportionately
    with its output load, which is exactly the way it is in a real PC environment.
    But there is the added benefit of a high power load tester which allows incremental
    load testing all the way to full power for any non-industrial PC power supply.
    Both fan noise and voltage are measured at various standard loads. It is, in
    general, a very demanding test, as the operating ambient temperature of the
    PSU often reaches >40°C at full power. This is impossible to achieve
    with an open test bench setup.

    Great effort has been made to devise as realistic an operating
    environment for the PSU as possible, but the thermal and noise results obtained
    here still cannot be considered absolute. There are too many variables in PCs
    and too many possible combinations of components for any single test environment
    to provide infallible results. And there is always the bugaboo of sample variance.
    These results are akin to a resume, a few detailed photographs, and some short
    sound bites of someone you've never met. You'll probably get a pretty good overall
    representation, but it is not quite the same as an extended meeting in person.

    REAL SYSTEM POWER NEEDS: While our testing loads the PSU to full output
    (even >600W!) in order to verify the manufacturer's claims, real desktop
    PCs simply do not require anywhere near this level of power. The most pertinent
    range of DC output power is between about 65W and 250W, because it is the power
    range where most systems will be working most of the time. To illustrate this
    point, we conducted system tests
    to measure the maximum power draw that an actual system can draw
    under worst-case conditions.
    Our most powerful Intel 670 (P4-3.8) processor
    rig with nVidia 6800GT video card drew ~214W DC from the power supply under
    full load ? well within the capabilities of any modern power supply. Please
    follow the link provided above to see the details. It is true that very elaborate
    systems with SLI could draw as much as another 100W, perhaps more, but the total
    still remains well under 400W in extrapolations of our real world measurements.

    SPCR's high fidelity sound
    recording system
    was used to create MP3 sound files of this PSU. As
    with the setup for recording fans, the position of the mic was 3" from the exhaust
    vent at a 45° angle, outside the airflow turbulence area. The photo below shows
    the setup (a different PSU is being recorded). All other noise sources in the
    room were turned off while making the sound recordings.

    INTERPRETING TEMPERATURE DATA

    It important to keep in mind that fan speed varies with temperature,
    not output load. A power supply generates more heat as output increases, but
    is not the only the only factor that affects fan speed. Ambient temperature
    and case airflow have almost as much effect. Our test rig represents a challenging
    thermal situation for a power supply: A large portion of the heat generated
    inside the case must be exhausted through the power supply, which causes a corresponding
    increase in fan speed.

    When examining thermal data, the most important indicator of cooling efficiency
    is the difference
    between intake and exhaust. Because the heat generated in the PSU
    loader by the output of the PSU is always the same for a given power
    level, the intake temperature should be roughly the same between
    different tests. The only external variable is the ambient room
    temperature. The temperature of the exhaust air from the PSU is
    affected by several factors:

    • Intake temperature (determined by ambient temperature and power output level)
    • Efficiency of the PSU (how much heat it generates while producing the required output)
    • The effectiveness of the PSU's cooling system, which is comprised of:
      • Overall mechanical and airflow design
      • Size, shape and overall surface area of heatsinks
      • Fan(s) and fan speed control circuit

    The thermal rise in the power supply is really the only indicator
    we have about all of the above. This is why the intake temperature is important:
    It represents the ambient temperature around the power supply itself. Subtracting
    the intake temperature from the exhaust temperature gives a reasonable gauge
    of the effectiveness of the power supply's cooling system. This is the only
    temperature number that is comparable between different reviews, as it is unaffected
    by the ambient temperature.

    On to the test results...

    Ambient conditions during testing were 20°C and 19 dBA. AC input was 121V
    and 60 Hz, measured at the outlet.

    OUTPUT & EFFICIENCY: FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN











    DC Output Voltage (V) + Current (A)

    Total DC Output
    (W)

    AC Input (W)

    Calculated Efficiency
    +12V1
    +12V2
    +5V
    +3.3V
    -12V
    +5VSB
    12.25
    0.97
    12.24
    1.74
    5.08
    0.99
    3.31
    0.00
    0.1
    0.2
    40.4
    58
    69.7%
    12.26
    1.92
    12.25
    1.75
    5.07
    1.95
    3.31
    1.85
    0.1
    0.3
    63.7
    84
    75.8%
    12.26
    2.88
    12.26
    1.75
    5.06
    3.77
    3.30
    2.73
    0.2
    0.5
    89.7
    114
    78.7%
    12.24
    4.82
    12.24
    3.32
    5.04
    5.65
    3.28
    4.53
    0.3
    0.8
    150.6
    185
    81.4%
    12.23
    5.76
    12.23
    5.02
    5.05
    7.32
    3.29
    6.29
    0.4
    1.0
    199.3
    245
    81.3%
    12.24
    6.70
    12.23
    6.75
    5.03
    9.11
    3.30
    8.30
    0.5
    1.3
    250.3
    311
    80.5%
    12.24
    7.87
    12.23
    8.22
    5.09
    10.88
    3.31
    9.90
    0.6
    1.5
    299.7
    376
    79.7%
    12.30
    9.8
    12.28
    11.47
    5.08
    14.14
    3.30
    13.96
    0.8
    2.0
    398.9
    515
    77.5%
    NOTE: The current and voltage for -12V and +5VSB lines
    is not measured but based on switch settings of the DBS-2100 PS Loader.
    It is a tiny portion of the total, and potential errors arising from inaccuracies
    on these lines is
    The loading formula is the same one used by
    Efficient
    Power Supplies
    , which can be downloaded as a PDF file from
    the linked page. This is the testing arm of the
    80
    Plus program
    , which encourages the use of high efficiency power
    supplies in computers in the US and Canada.

    OTHER DATA SUMMARY: FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN
    DC Output (W)
    40.4
    63.7
    89.7
    150.6
    199.3
    250.3
    299.7
    398.9
    Intake Temp (°C)
    22
    24
    25
    30
    33
    36
    33
    36
    Exhaust Temp (°C)
    28
    30
    31
    37
    41
    45
    47
    52
    Temp Rise (°C)
    6
    6
    6
    7
    8
    9
    14
    16
    Fan Voltage
    4.3
    4.5
    4.8
    5.7
    6.6
    7.9
    9.4
    10.9
    SPL ([email protected])
    24
    25
    26
    29
    31
    34
    37
    39
    Power Factor
    0.90
    0.93
    0.95
    0.97
    0.97
    0.98
    0.99
    0.98
    NOTE: The ambient room temperature during testing can
    vary a few degrees from review to review. Please take this into account
    when comparing PSU test data.

    ANALYSIS

    1. VOLTAGE REGULATION was excellent. None of the voltage rails ever
    changed by more than 1%, minimum to maximum, and all were well within the required
    5% of nominal at all voltages. The +3.3V rail in particular was almost always
    within 0.01V of its nominal voltage. In addition, the Green PS did an excellent job of compensating for voltage
    drops at higher output levels. In fact, the highest voltages on the +12V rails
    were measured at full load.

    2. EFFICIENCY as measured by our test setup did not reach the 85% claimed
    by FSP. To be fair, the Green PS is targeted at the European market, most of
    which uses 230V AC power that can be converted to DC more efficiently than the
    120V power. With its peak at 81%, the Green power is still a very efficient
    power supply, and it remained efficient even at full load.

    The 77.5% efficiency and strong line voltages at full load suggest that the
    Green PS is quite conservatively rated, and may be able to handle more than
    its rated output in a well cooled system.

    3. POWER FACTOR was quite variable for a unit with active power factor
    correction, although it was always above 0.90. Although the numbers are slightly
    lower than usual, they were not low enough to make much practical difference.

    4. TEMPERATURE AND COOLING

    For all loads below 250W output, the cooling efficiency proved to be perfectly
    acceptable. Above 300W, the temperature rise across the unit jumped sharply,
    but the absolute temperature did not increase significantly. This is very odd
    behavior... but not quite as odd as the measured internal
    temperature, which actually dropped at this output. I can think of no satisfactory
    explanation for this unusual performance. It seems to be a
    measurement anomaly that is meaningless.

    As mentioned, the unusual layout and small heatsinks did not seem to have an
    adverse affect on the internal cooling. According to our usual testing, the
    Green PS is an average performer, no better and certainly no worse than the
    majority of its competitors.

    Subjectively, there seemed to be much more air than usual flowing through the
    power supply. The air felt a little cooler than usual, but the measurements
    did not bear this out.

    5. FAN, FAN CONTROLLER and NOISE

    In spite of the noise measurements, the Green PS actually sounded
    quite good. The Yate Loon fan was not quite as smooth as the sleeve bearing
    models, but it's not bad. For most of the lower output
    levels, the noise was dominated by the whoosh of wind turbulence, which seems indicative of high
    airflow.

    Somewhere around 150-200W output (~33°C intake), a low pitched drone from
    the motor became the dominant noise. Coincidentally, this
    was also the point when the noise began to become intrusive. Even at full
    speed there was still more wind noise than usual.

    The fan controller was quite unusual, because it varied the fan voltage throughout
    the output range, not just above a certain threshold. The fan started cold at
    ~3.7V (close to inaudible at 21 [email protected]), but even at the extremely low load
    of 40W it climbed to 4.3V. At this level, a small amount of turbulence noise
    was clearly audible, but the motor drone was very difficult to make out.
    The fan voltage continued to climb more or less constantly as the output increased
    until about 200W output, when the rate of change began to increase.

    Changes in fan speed were quite gradual, almost imperceptible. But, because
    the speed is almost always changing, it is more likely to be noticed than a
    model that stays steady until a certain internal temperature is reached. The
    most noticeable point during our testing was around 150W output when the turbulence noise changed
    to motor hum.

    MP3 Sound Recordings of FSP Green PS FSP400-60GLN

    FSP
    Green PS 400 @ 40W (24 [email protected])

    FSP
    Green PS 400 @ 65W (25 [email protected])

    FSP
    Green PS 400 @ 90W (26 [email protected])

    FSP
    Green PS 400 @ 150W (29 [email protected])

    There was no need to make recordings at higher power levels; it's simply too loud.
    Sound Recordings of PSU Comparatives

    Seasonic
    Tornado 400 @ 65W (19 dBA/1m)

    Seasonic
    S12-430 @ 150W (19 dBA/1m)

    Antec
    Neo HE 430 @ 150W (21 [email protected])

    Antec
    Neo HE 430 @ 200W (26 [email protected])

    Enermax
    Noisetaker 600W (2.0) @ 150W (27 dBA/1m)

    HOW TO LISTEN & COMPARE

    These recordings were made with a high
    resolution studio quality digital recording system. The microphone was 3" from
    the edge of the fan frame at a 45° angle, facing the intake side of the fan to
    avoid direct wind noise. The ambient noise during all recordings was 18 dBA or
    lower.

    To set the volume to a realistic level (similar to the original), try playing the Nexus 92 fan reference recording and setting the volume so that it is barely audible. Then don't reset the volume and play the other sound files. Of course, tone controls or other effects should all be turned off or set to neutral. For full details on how to calibrate your sound system to get the most
    valid listening comparison, please see the yellow text box entitled Listen to
    the Fans
    on page four of the article
    SPCR's Test / Sound Lab: A Short Tour.

    CONCLUSIONS

    In spite of its scrawny, unpolished looks, there is substance
    to the FSP Green PS. At the moment, the Green PS is a bit of a novelty, but once the RoHS legislation
    in the EU takes full effect we can expect to see many more environmentally friendly power supplies. FSP deserves credit for being first at the gate, and there seems
    to be a serious power supply underneath the lead-free, recyclable
    marketing.

    In terms of electrical output, the Green PS is solid. Its voltage rails
    were rock steady in our testing, and it has high efficiency. The high specified operating temperature
    should mean that performance will remain solid even under less favorable circumstances.

    The noise performance is above average, but two factors hold
    it back:

    1. High airflow creates a lot of broadband turbulence
      noise.
    2. The fan controller doesn't have a threshold where it stays put, but remains responsive
      throughout its output range.

    Changes in fan speed are gradual and barely noticeable, and if the
    output is stable, the fan speed will also be stable. But compared to the best fan-cooled PSUs, changes in load have a higher chance of leading to audible changes in fan speed.

    Despite the thermal measurements, the internal cooling is still a
    bit of a mystery. The miniature heatsinks and electrical components don't seem
    to suffer from their small size, but it's still difficult to know just how well
    cooled they are. All we can really say for sure is that the thermal rise through the unit is about average among SPCR-tested PSUs. (Editor's Note: The minimalist, cost-effective approach manifested in the FSP Green PS is reminiscent of Arctic Cooling's approach with low-cost heatsink-fans, which I've often admired for their efficient engineering.)

    The Green PS offers very good electrical performance, decent acoustics, and some eccentricities: The small
    components and its environmentally friendly construction can't be found anywhere
    else. As I said at the beginning, this is a nerdy power supply: It looks quite
    unremarkable, but is impossible to fully understand.

    NOTE: In North America, the FSP Green PS appears to be stocked only by the online retailer Newegg at this time (Nov. 7, 2005). There are a few more stores that offer it in the EU.

    Much thanks to FSP
    Group
    for the opportunity to examine this power supply.

    * * *

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